Dyspnea


When illness is incurable or the cause is irreversible and the goal is palliation, systemic opioids are the first-line therapy for symptomatic management of dyspnea.

Palliat Med. 1997 Jul;11(4):277-81.
Oral morphine as symptomatic treatment of dyspnoea in patients with advanced cancer.
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N Engl J Med. 1981 Dec 31;305(27):1611-6.
Effects of dihydrocodeine, alcohol, and caffeine on breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and normal blood gases.
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Education for Physicians on End-of-life Care (EPEC) Participant’s Handbook
EPEC Project, 1999. The Project to Educate Physicians on End-of-life Care from the Institute for Ethics at the American Medical Association.


BMJ. 2003 Sep 6;327(7414):523-8
Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea
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